Failure Mode of SS 304 & its prevention

Chromium in concentrations above 12% renders steel stainless. 304 stainless steel (SS), contains 19% Cr and 9% Ni. The function of nickel is to strengthen the alloy and to provide greater corrosion resistance. Unfortunately, if the steel contains nearly 0.1% residual carbon from the iron and steel-making processes then the chromium in the SS has a strong affinity for carbon and slow cooling through the red heat range allows chromium carbides to nucleate heterogeneously on the grain boundaries. The adjacent regions in the grains are depleted of chromium to far below the 12% threshold and are no longer as corrosion resistant. Thus, the steel is said to be “sensitized” and is susceptible to intergranular corrosive attack. The slow cool after the welding of the 304 SS allows such precipitation and triggers sensitization. This is technically known as the sensitization temperature of SS which is around 650 degrees C (ball park figure). It can get activated during welding or due the application like using 304 SS in very hot working conditions.

 

Even when sensitized, the steel is adequate for many applications, such as household products (SS utensils that we use on the gas ovens) and even containers for less concentrated nitric acid. However, while sensitized steel is adequate for 75% nitric acid, it could not be used for the 90% solution.

Whenever corrosive attack on 304 grade of SS is the predominant failure mode it might be prevented in several ways. For example, low carbon stainless steel, designated as 304L could be used. Or, addition of niobium during steel making would tie up the carbon as fine, harmless intragranular niobium carbides. Alternatively, we can anneal, especially welded joints on 304 (if possible — size of the furnace often becomes a constraint) at a bright-red heat to dissolve the carbides and then water quench to prevent their re-nucleation. Any of these techniques can be effective, but the additional cost has to taken into account.

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