Case of Missing Gear Mesh Frequency


“Why don’t we see the Gear Mesh Frequency (GMF) on the output side of a splash lubricated slow speed gear box?”

This is quite puzzling since common sense dictates that such peaks should be present.

My Answer:

The principles involved are the following:

1. Air, water and oil produce turbulence when worked on by machines like pumps, gears, fans, propellers etc.
2. Such turbulence creates damping force.
3. This is proportional to the square of the velocity.
4. But this damping force acts in quite a funny manner.
5. For slow speed machines (say below 750 rpm; slower the better) damping is positive that is it goes against the motion and so neutralizes the entropy as seen by the decrease in the vibration levels. Hence the gear mesh frequencies vanish. Coriolis Effect on the output side of the gear box also helps in attenuating the vibration.
6. But for high speed machines damping is negative. That is it goes in the direction of the motion and therefore enhances the entropy as seen by the increase in the vibration levels.
7. So, for low speed machines it goes against the motion and suppresses the GMF. In some cases it suppresses the fundamental peak as is found in the case of the vertical Cooling Water Pumps of Power Plants. GMF is produced when the fundamental frequency is superimposed onto the vibration generated through gear impacts.
8. It therefore follows that for high speed gear boxes it magnifies both fundamental and GMF peaks.

Missing peaks therefore indicate fluid turbulence, which might also be indicated by other peaks like vane pass frequencies. The condition monitoring of such gear boxes might best be done through Wear Debris Analysis/Ferrography.

So, this is the mystery of the missing GMF in splash lubricated slow speed gear boxes.

Therefore, splash lubrication for a low speed gear box is a good idea. It enhances the life of the gear box since it balances the entropy in the system.

But at the same time, with higher oil level in a splash lubricated high speed gear box the vibration level would increase, specially the fundamental and the GMF. That would spell trouble.

Similarly, it is better to have a turbulent air flow in low speed fans and blowers. It suppresses the vibrations and therefore enhances the life of bearings.

Nature also uses these principles of fluid turbulence and damping? Applications?

1. Bird’s nest are made up of loosely placed twigs and leaves usually not bound to each other. But these don’t break up or fall off in turbulent winds. Damping keeps them in place and provides the necessary security to birds.

2. Swift flowing rivers allow fishes to grow bigger and better.

3. Winds, storms etc neutralize the increase in entropy.

Design Ideas for Reliability & Sustainability?

1. Low speed gear boxes might best be lubricated by splash lubrication.
2. High speed gear boxes might best be lubricated by spray lubrication
3. Hotter and turbulent air might best be handled by low speed fans and blowers.


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